Saturday, May 23, 2020

Definition and History of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the  linguistic theory that the semantic structure of a language shapes or limits the ways in which a speaker forms conceptions of the world. It came about in 1929. The theory is named after the American anthropological linguist Edward Sapir (1884–1939) and his student Benjamin Whorf (1897–1941). It is also known as the  theory of linguistic relativity, linguistic relativism, linguistic determinism, Whorfian hypothesis, and Whorfianism. History of the Theory The idea that a persons native language determines how he or she thinks was popular among behaviorists of the 1930s and on until cognitive psychology theories came about, beginning in the 1950s and increasing in influence in the 1960s. (Behaviorism taught that behavior is a result of external conditioning and doesnt take feelings, emotions, and thoughts into account as affecting behavior. Cognitive psychology studies mental processes such as creative thinking, problem-solving, and attention.) Author Lera Boroditsky gave some background on ideas about the connections between languages and thought: The question of whether languages shape the way we think goes back centuries; Charlemagne proclaimed that to have a second language is to have a second soul. But the idea went out of favor with scientists when  Noam Chomskys theories of language gained popularity in the 1960s and 70s. Dr. Chomsky proposed that there is a  universal grammar  for all human languages—essentially, that languages dont really differ from one another in significant ways....  (Lost in Translation. The Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2010) The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was taught in courses through the early 1970s and had become widely accepted as truth, but then it fell out of favor. By the 1990s, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was left for dead, author Steven Pinker wrote. The cognitive revolution in psychology, which made the study of pure thought possible, and a number of studies showing meager effects of language on concepts, appeared to kill the concept in the 1990s... But recently it has been resurrected, and neo-Whorfianism is now an active research topic in  psycholinguistics. (The Stuff of Thought. Viking, 2007) Neo-Whorfianism is essentially a weaker version of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and says that language  influences  a speakers view of the world but does not inescapably determine it. The Theorys Flaws One big problem with the original Sapir-Whorf hypothesis stems from the idea that if a persons language has no word for a particular concept, then that person would not be able to understand that concept, which is untrue.  Language doesnt necessarily control humans ability to reason or have an emotional response to something or some idea. For example, take the German word  sturmfrei, which essentially is the feeling when you have the whole house to yourself because your parents or roommates are away. Just because English doesnt have a single word for the idea doesnt mean that Americans cant understand the concept. Theres also the chicken and egg problem with the theory. Languages, of course, are human creations, tools we invent and hone to suit our needs,  Boroditsky continued. Simply showing that speakers of different languages think differently doesnt tell us whether its language that shapes thought or the other way around.

Monday, May 11, 2020

High School Dropouts And Its Effect On Our Country

Being defeated is often an (only lasting for a short time) condition. Giving up is permanent, Marylin vos Smart person. According to, 1.3 million students each year dropout of high school in the United States alone. Dropouts refers to a student quitting school before he or she graduates or avoiding enrolling in college. Students who drop out are more likely to be unemployed, homeless, or receiving welfare. High School dropouts are very common in the United States today. Only 72% of America s children graduate from high school. Eighteen states allows the students to stop school before the age of eighteen. High school dropouts causes a bad effect on our country. The results of dropping out of high school can have†¦show more content†¦Some small sections/small parts are presented below in tables; however, for a complete discussion,please see the original article: Understanding Why Students Drop Out of High School, According to Their Own Reports Lower education ranking is a huge effect of dropping out of high school. Many people are unable to finish high school due to sickness, such as pregnancy, viruses, etc. The lower someone s education ranking is, the harder it would be for them to survive in the real world. College is the most helpful way that a parent can take care of them and/or their kids. According to, over the past twenty years, parents with less education have been losing money-based ground. 25% of student are in poor families with parents that does not have a high school diploma. 57% of students are in poor families with parents that only has high school diploma and did not go ahead/move forward to college. 24% of students are in poor families with parents that only has some college education. These percentages shows that the college level you have, the more likely you are to coming close to succeeding. People with low education level are the people who are in poor families, struggling, or even poor and living on the streets. Those with lower education levels receives the most help from the government. People with poor and education tends

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations Free Essays

Why is a conical flask, rather than a beaker, used in the experiment? – To allow easy mixing of solutions by swirling. 2. Why is the funnel removed from the burette after adding the acid solution? – so that the drops from the funnel will not fall into the burette. We will write a custom essay sample on Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. In using a burette, why is it important to (a) rinse it with a little of the solution it is going to contain? – to remove any residual water and so avoid dilution of the acid solution when it is poured into the burette. (b) to clamp it vertically? – to enable the liquid level to be read correctly. ) to have the part below the tap full? – to ensure that the actual volume of liquid delivered into the flask is read correctly. 4. Give one reason for carrying out the following procedures during the titration. (i) The sides of the conical flask were washed down with deionised water? – To ensure that all of the acid added from the burette can react with the base. (ii) The conical flask was frequently swirled or shaken? – To ensure complete mixing of the reactants. 5. Why is a rough titration carried out? – To find the approximate end point. This nformation enables the subsequent titrations to be carried out more quickly. 6. Why is more than one accurate titration carried out? – To minimise error by getting accurate readings within 0. 1-3 cm of each other. 7. Explain why hydrochloric acid is not used as a primary standard? – The exact concentration of any hydrochloric acid solution is not known, unless it is prepared from standard ampoules. Laboratory grade hydrochloric acid is not sufficiently pure. 8. Can any of the following be used as primary standards: NaOH, H2S04, HN03? Explain your answer. A primary standard should be available in a highly pure state and stable. None of these substances are available pure because: (a) NaOH readily absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air. (b) Concentrated H2S04 readily absorbs water from the air. (c)HN03 breaks down releasing N02 gas. 9. If you used only 10cm3 of sodium carbonate solution in the conical flask, calculate how much acid would be required to neutralise it. x 10-3 moles Na2C03 10cm3 Na 2CO 3 solution used at concentration of 0. 1 M 1 2 x 10-3 moles HCL required Concentration of HCL is 0. M 1000 x 2 x 10-3 / 0. 23crn3 required = 10. 5crn fi13. 10. Describe briefly how a pure dry sample of sodium chloride could be obtained having carried out the titration? – Using the information provided by the titration results, add Just enough hydrochloric acid to exactly neutralise 25cm 3 of sodium carbonate. The indicator should not be added. Gently heat the solution until all the water has evaporated to dryness. A sample of sodium chloride will remain in the beaker. Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations By AbigailHerbert How to cite Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Podcast 2 Proposal Essays - World Wide Web, Behavioral Addiction

Podcast 2 Proposal For the podcast assignment, I will be using Source f orge Audacity software. It is an open source project and free to use application. Audacity is multi-track audio editor and recorder for Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux . This is relatively easy to use audio tool. I have some experience using the app, but not for podcasting purposes. I've been listening to a few podcasts, such as Talking Tesla and ESL podcasts. In my second podcast, I woul d like to talk about video game addiction . Most definitions of video game addiction refer to excessive play which results in negative emotional, social, relational, educational, or career consequences. There are several signs of video game addiction: s pending most of one's free time playing video games , f requently playing video games for six to eight hours non-stop , l oss of interest in social activities etc. I will discuss i s v ideo g ame a ddiction a big probl em . I will use the next sources:

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Not another romantic movie essays

Not another romantic movie essays Whether we admit it or not, we know that deep, down in each one of us, there exists a hopeless romantic. People long to experience love; experience how to love and how it feels to be loved. Sometimes, we experience this love by watching romantic films. We are thrilled to get a view of beautiful leading ladies and dashing leading men, wishing we were the characters that they portrayed. We usually want to witness them experience a happy ending just as we want ourselves to experience the same. But then, sometimes we feel that we have seen enough of these very predictable, unrealistic romantic films and realize we want something new. Well, we might have just found an original, intelligent and realistic romantic film about fate and destiny in the movie Before Sunset. It had a refreshingly unique story, convincing actors and a romantic setting. This movie proves to be different from many other romantic films. Unlike other films where a lot of kissing and intimate scenes are needed to portray the romance between the leading characters, in this movie, their conversations alone were already romantic and engrossing. It was a great plus for this movie for it had insightful conversations between the main characters. A downside to the uniqueness of this movie is that some people still prefer the old typical romantic movies. Some people might look for the intimate scenes and get bored with the seemingly endless conversation between the two characters. Yet, the distinctiveness of this film is intriguing enough to make the viewers hang on and await for every scene. Another thing, in most stories, destiny and fate brings the main characters together and is responsible for their happiness. Well in this film, destiny was accountable for causing Jesse and Celine pain. For instance, the scene where Jesse mentioned that on the day he was about to get married, he thought he saw Celine folding an umbrella across the street and later on learned f...

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Glossary of Common Mitosis Terms

Glossary of Common Mitosis Terms Mitosis Glossary Mitosis is a form of cell division that enables organisms to grow and reproduce. The mitosis stage of the cell cycle involves the separation of nuclear chromosomes, followed by cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm forming two distinct cells). At the end of mitosis, two distinct daughter cells are produced. Each cell contains identical genetic material. This Mitosis Glossary is a good resource for finding succinct, practical, and meaningful definitions for common mitosis terms. Mitosis Glossary - Index Anaphase - stage in mitosis where chromosomes begin moving to opposite ends (poles) of the cell. Allele - an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Asters - radial microtubule arrays found in animal cells that help to manipulate chromosomes during cell division. Cell Cycle - the life cycle of a dividing cell. It includes Interphase and the M phase or Mitotic phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). Centrioles - cylindrical structures that are composed of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 3 pattern. Centromere - a region on a chromosome that joins two sister chromatids. Chromatid - one of two identical copies of a replicated chromosome. Chromatin - mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division. Chromosome - a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information (DNA) and is formed from condensed chromatin. Cytokinesis - d ivision of the cytoplasm that produces distinct daughter cells. Cytoskeleton - a network of fibers throughout the cells cytoplasm that helps the cell maintain its shape and gives support to the cell. Daughter Cell - a cell resulting from the replication and division of a single parent cell. Daughter Chromosome - a chromosome that results from the separation of sister chromatids during cell division. Diploid Cell - a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes. One set of chromosomes is donated from each parent. Genes - segments of DNA located on chromosomes that exist in alternative forms called alleles. Haploid Cell - a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes. Kinetochore - a specialized region on the centromere of chromosome where spindle polar fibers attach to the chromosome. Kinetochore Fibers - microtubules that connect kinetochores to spindle polar fibers. Interphase - stage in the cell cycle where a cell doubles in size and synthesizes DNA in preparation for cell division. Metaphase - stage in mitosis where chromosomes align alo ng the metaphase plate in the center of the cell. Microtubules - fibrous, hollow rods, that function primarily to help support and shape the cell. Mitosis - a phase of the cell cycle that involves the separation of nuclear chromosomes followed by cytokinesis. Nucleus - a membrane-bound structure that contains the cells hereditary information and controls the cells growth and reproduction. Polar Fibers - spindle fibers that extend from the two poles of a dividing cell. Prophase - stage in mitosis where chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes. Sister Chromatids - two identical copies of a single chromosome that are connected by a centromere. Spindle Fibers - aggregates of microtubules that move chromosomes during cell division. Telophase - stage in mitosis where the nucleus of one cell is divided equally into two nuclei. More Biology Terms For information on additional biology related terms, see the Genetics Glossary and Difficult Biology Words.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Crime Scene Documentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Crime Scene Documentation - Essay Example The photography technique requires the investigator to use both close-up coverage and medium coverage that will provide aerial and vertical view of the suspect positions and items left at the crime scene. The sketches will identify the surrounding area of the crime scene and possible positions of the suspects (Pepper, 2010). According to Ogle (2011), crime scene sketching aims at creating a permanent record of the distance relationship of the physical evidence and crime scene. Sketching will require the investigator to have folding ruler, graph paper, pencil, and flashlight since it is essential to take proportional measurements such as exit areas and bullet trajectory angles (Pepper, 2010). The sketch is critical in clarifying the information in photographs and videos since it enables the viewer to gauge the dimensions and distances. A sketch is essential in crime scene documentation since it assists during interviewing and interrogations, it relates the sequence of events at the scene, and establishes a precise relationship of objects found at the crime scene (Ogle, 2011). The sketches may include details such as size if the room, height of a door frame and distance from the door to the window. The projection view of the sketch will show the horizontal floor plan while the schematic perspective is essential in showing the sequence of events such bullet firing position (Horswell, 2010). Another aspect of sketching is the triangulation that will involve taking the distance and measurements from a central position such as bedroom. Crime investigators rely on the rectangular coordinate method of sketching measure the distance from two perpendicular items such as walls and doors. The polar coordinate method is mainly applicable in outdoor crime scenes where there is only one reference point such as road accidents (Ogle, 2011). The final