Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Project Management Essay example -- Business Research

Venture Management Albeit an advancement group does a large portion of the work, it is the task supervisor that is running the improvement procedure. All human movement that includes doing an undertaking needs an arrangement. We call this Project Management. However, there is a major contrast between ventures that include a couple of individuals and tasks that include huge quantities of individuals. There is consistently a littler gathering of people behind every bigger gathering that is arranging, coordinating, and rousing those individuals. There are three fundamental parts to extend the board: start date, finish date, and all the errands that should be done. At the point when the arrangement begins to include various things occurring at various occasions, the vast majority of which are dependant upon one another, the arrangement can begin to take up a gigantic measure of existence. This is the reason you should begin with a solid arrangement. Presently days there are PC programs that will in general produce answers long after the occasions have occurred. These task arranging and planning programs give genuine data, hazard investigation, time recording, costing, evaluating and numerous different sorts or venture the executives. In any case, these projects are not under any condition venture the board. Task the executives is control, initiative, cooperation, overseeing of assets, and a fundamental information for the undertaking. Venture chiefs are found in each industry, from planners to police officer. There is an interest for an ever increasing number of individuals who have the important aptitudes it takes to deal with a group or a venture. The fundamental worries of an undertaking chief are time, quality, and cost control. These are what drive these directors to be the most productive as could reasonably be expected. â€Å"The achievement of a venture will rely on the exertion, care and ability you apply in its initi... ...ble segments as far as size and intricacy. The significant sort of chart utilized is a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). WBS is very task situated. Different outlines that could be utilized are Gantt graphs and Load diagrams. As we move into the future there is increasingly more interest for incredible pioneers regardless of the profession you are in. It appears that less individuals can think for themselves any longer, it resembles everybody is turning out to be robots to innovation. I feel this is making a tremendous entryway for the individuals who can lead others into this new wilderness. It appears that there are less individuals who have what it takes or even who are eager. There are extraordinary awards for the individuals who perceive this new development and need to assume responsibility for enormous organizations. So as time proceeds onward we will perceive how this new innovation insurgency winds up and who the pioneers will be.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

A Comparison of Michelangelos and Donatellos Sculptures of David

The examination of figures among Michelangelo and Donatello David Michelangelo and Donatello was the most regarded and energizing craftsman of the time. Michelangelo of the High Renaissance and Donatello of the early Renaissance originated from Italy. Them two recount to the tale of David and Goliath, as depicted in Sam 2: 17: 28-51 in their figure 'David'. David is a shepherd kid, executing a mammoth Goliath with just a single pachinko in his grasp. Michelangelo indicated David before the battle and Donatello demonstrated David to David in the battle against Goliath. In the Renaissance time frame, specialists, for example, Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Michelangelo delivered acclaimed works, for example, Donatello's bronze David, Door to the baptistery of Florence, Michelangelo, figures arrived at the peak. The marble of David and Pieta the Virgin Mary tenderly embracing the expired Jesus. Most Renaissance models are as yet strict about that subject. The congregation is brimming with deliberately cut tents, podium towers, tombs, special raised areas, bowl pots and sculptures. Be that as it may, as they get familiar with old style craftsmanship, stone carvers likewise work as pagans, including horse riding (pony and rider) sculptures, picture busts and male naked drawings. Also, workmanship isn't only for the congregation The city of Florence paid for his model of David. The client felt that he was hard to deal with and participate. He is anything but a social scholarly like Leonardo da Vinci or Michelangelo. Donatello is basically a pragmatist. A large number of the perfect works of art of Donatello are in Florence. A portion of the artful culminations include: St. Subside, St Mark, Sukune, St George and Dragon, St. John Evangelist, Magdalen and Angel and Tambourine. Huge numbers of his models were an advancement in the Renaissance. One of them, David was the principal bare sculpture of the Renaissance, and the goddess of the equestrian gutta Merita was viewed as perhaps the best figure ever. (Rainbow Book of Art p.68, May 16, 2003) David was bound to turn into the second lord of Israel, obliterating the Philistines' monster Goliath with stones and hanging chains. Both Donatello, Verrocchio, Michelangelo, Benigni structured the David design. Be that as it may, models are altogether different from one another. Each is one of a kind in its own particular manner. Donatello, the primary life-sized bare sculpture since the traditional time, balances among classicalism and authenticity through the genuine picture of an Italian rancher's kid introducing a great naked sculpture. Donatello was enlivened by traditional figures, however he didn't pick Greek youth as a model of David. Rather, he picked a little fellow whose arm was feebly exposed in view of an absence of muscles. In the wake of crushing Goliath at the foot of David, he set a blade close to him and managed its vast majority. It is practically incomprehensible for young men like David to achieve such work. essay.com/DAVID MICHELANGO, DONATELLO, This is four distinct structures about David mold.

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Classical Conditioning How It Works With Examples

Classical Conditioning How It Works With Examples Theories Behavioral Psychology Print Classical Conditioning Overview A Step-by-Step Guide to How Classical Conditioning Really Works By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 14, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on September 05, 2019 More in Theories Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand Classical Conditioning Basics How Does Classical Conditioning Work? Key Principles of Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Examples View All Back To Top Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.??? Illustration by Joshua Seong, Verywell Classical Conditioning Basics Although classical conditioning was not discovered by a psychologist at all, it had a tremendous influence over the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism.??? Behaviorism is based on the assumption that:All  learning occurs through interactions with the environmentThe environment shapes behavior Its important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlovs classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (presenting of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.??? In order to understand how more about how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process. How Does Classical Conditioning Work? Classical conditioning basically involves forming an association between two stimuli resulting in a learned response.??? There are three basic phases of this process: Phase 1: Before Conditioning The first part of the classical conditioning process requires a naturally occurring stimulus that will automatically elicit a response. Salivating in response to the smell of food is a good example of a naturally occurring stimulus. During this phase of the processes, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) results in an unconditioned response (UCR).??? For example, presenting food (the UCS) naturally and automatically triggers a salivation response (the UCR). At this point, there is also a neutral stimulus that produces no effect - yet. It isnt until this neutral stimulus is paired with the UCS that it will come to evoke a response. Lets take a closer look at the two critical components of this phase of classical conditioning. The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response.??? For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus.??? In our example, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the unconditioned response. Phase 2: During Conditioning During the second phase of the classical conditioning process, the previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. As a result of this pairing, an association between the previously neutral stimulus and the UCS is formed. At this point, the once neutral stimulus becomes known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The subject has now been conditioned to respond to this stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response.??? In our earlier example, suppose that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus. Phase 3: After Conditioning Once the association has been made between the UCS and the CS, presenting the conditioned stimulus alone will come to evoke a response even without the unconditioned stimulus. The resulting response is known as the conditioned response (CR).??? The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In our example, the conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle. Key Principles of Classical Conditioning Behaviorists have described a number of different phenomena associated with  classical conditioning. Some of these elements involve the initial establishment of the response while others describe the disappearance of a response. These elements are important in understanding the classical conditioning process. Lets take a closer look at five key principles of classical conditioning: 1. Acquisition Acquisition  is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened.??? During the acquisition phase of classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an  unconditioned stimulus. As you may recall, an unconditioned stimulus is something that naturally and automatically triggers a response without any learning. After an association is made, the subject will begin to emit a behavior in response to the previously neutral stimulus, which is now known as a  conditioned stimulus. It is at this point that we can say that the response has been acquired. For example, imagine that you are conditioning a dog to salivate in response to the sound of a bell. You repeatedly pair the presentation of food with the sound of the bell. You can say the response has been acquired as soon as the dog begins to salivate in response to the bell tone. Once the response has been established, you can gradually reinforce the salivation response to make sure the behavior is well learned. Acquisition in Classical Conditioning 2. Extinction Extinction  is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decreases or disappears. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus.??? For example, if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear. Extinction in Classical Conditioning 3. Spontaneous Recovery Sometimes a learned response can suddenly reemerge even after a period of extinction.  Spontaneous recovery  is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response.??? For example, imagine that after training a dog to salivate to the sound of a bell, you stop reinforcing the behavior and the response eventually becomes extinct. After a rest period during which the conditioned stimulus is not presented, you suddenly ring the bell and the animal spontaneously recovers the previously learned response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery. Why Spontaneous Recovery Is Important in Psychology 4. Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization  is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.??? For example, if a dog has been conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell, the animal may also exhibit the same response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. In John B. Watsons famous  Little Albert Experiment, for example, a small child was conditioned to fear a white rat. The child demonstrated stimulus generalization by also exhibiting fear in response to other fuzzy white objects including stuffed toys and Watson own hair. How Stimulus Generalization Influences Learning 5. Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination  is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.??? For example, if a bell tone were the conditioned stimulus, discrimination would involve being able to tell the difference between the bell tone and other similar sounds. Because the subject is able to distinguish between these stimuli, he or she will only respond when the conditioned stimulus is presented. Understanding Stimulus Discrimination Classical Conditioning Examples It can be helpful to look at a few examples of how the classical conditioning process operates both in experimental and real-world  settings. Classical Conditioning of a Fear Response One of the most famous examples of classical conditioning was John B. Watsons experiment in which a fear response was conditioned in a boy known as Little Albert.??? The child initially showed no fear of a white rat, but after the rat was paired repeatedly with loud, scary sounds, the child would cry when the rat was present. The childs fear also generalized to other fuzzy white objects. Lets examine the elements of this classic experiment. Prior to the conditioning, the white rat was a neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus was the loud, clanging sounds and the unconditioned response was the fear response created by the noise. By repeatedly pairing the rat with the unconditioned stimulus, the white rat (now the conditioned stimulus) came to evoke the fear response (now the conditioned response). This experiment illustrates how phobias can form through classical conditioning. In many cases, a single pairing of a neutral stimulus (a dog, for example) and a frightening experience (being bitten by the dog) can lead to a lasting phobia (being afraid of dogs). Classical Conditioning of Taste Aversions Another example of classical conditioning can be seen in the development of conditioned taste aversions. Researchers John Garcia and Bob Koelling first noticed this phenomenon when they observed how rats that had been exposed to a nausea-causing radiation developed an aversion to flavored water after the radiation and the water were presented together.??? In this example, the radiation represents the unconditioned stimulus and the nausea represents the unconditioned response. After the pairing of the two, the flavored water is the conditioned stimulus, while the nausea that formed when exposed to the water alone is the conditioned response. Later research demonstrated that such classically conditioned aversions could be produced through a single pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. Researchers also found that such aversions can even develop if the conditioned stimulus (the taste of the food) is presented several hours before the unconditioned stimulus (the nausea-causing stimulus).??? Why do such associations develop so quickly? Obviously, forming such associations can have survival benefits for the organism. If an animal eats something that makes it ill, it needs to avoid eating the same food in the future to avoid sickness or even death. This is a great example of what is known as biological preparedness. Some associations form more readily because they aid in survival.??? In one famous field study, researchers injected sheep carcasses with a poison that would make coyotes sick but not kill them. The goal was to help sheep ranchers reduce the number of sheep lost to coyote killings. Not only did the experiment work by lowering the number of sheep killed, it also caused some of the coyotes to develop such a strong aversion to sheep that they would actually run away at the scent or sight of a sheep. A Word From Verywell In reality, people do not respond exactly like Pavlovs dogs. There are, however, numerous real-world applications for classical conditioning. For example, many dog trainers use classical conditioning techniques to help people train their pets. These techniques are also useful for helping people cope with phobias or anxiety problems. Therapists might, for example, repeatedly pair something that provokes anxiety with relaxation techniques in order to create an association. Teachers are able to apply classical conditioning in the class by creating a positive classroom environment to help students overcome anxiety or fear. Pairing an anxiety-provoking situation, such as performing in front of a group, with pleasant surroundings helps the student learn new associations. Instead of feeling anxious and tense in these situations, the child will learn to stay relaxed and calm.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Definition and History of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the  linguistic theory that the semantic structure of a language shapes or limits the ways in which a speaker forms conceptions of the world. It came about in 1929. The theory is named after the American anthropological linguist Edward Sapir (1884–1939) and his student Benjamin Whorf (1897–1941). It is also known as the  theory of linguistic relativity, linguistic relativism, linguistic determinism, Whorfian hypothesis, and Whorfianism. History of the Theory The idea that a persons native language determines how he or she thinks was popular among behaviorists of the 1930s and on until cognitive psychology theories came about, beginning in the 1950s and increasing in influence in the 1960s. (Behaviorism taught that behavior is a result of external conditioning and doesnt take feelings, emotions, and thoughts into account as affecting behavior. Cognitive psychology studies mental processes such as creative thinking, problem-solving, and attention.) Author Lera Boroditsky gave some background on ideas about the connections between languages and thought: The question of whether languages shape the way we think goes back centuries; Charlemagne proclaimed that to have a second language is to have a second soul. But the idea went out of favor with scientists when  Noam Chomskys theories of language gained popularity in the 1960s and 70s. Dr. Chomsky proposed that there is a  universal grammar  for all human languages—essentially, that languages dont really differ from one another in significant ways....  (Lost in Translation. The Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2010) The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was taught in courses through the early 1970s and had become widely accepted as truth, but then it fell out of favor. By the 1990s, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was left for dead, author Steven Pinker wrote. The cognitive revolution in psychology, which made the study of pure thought possible, and a number of studies showing meager effects of language on concepts, appeared to kill the concept in the 1990s... But recently it has been resurrected, and neo-Whorfianism is now an active research topic in  psycholinguistics. (The Stuff of Thought. Viking, 2007) Neo-Whorfianism is essentially a weaker version of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and says that language  influences  a speakers view of the world but does not inescapably determine it. The Theorys Flaws One big problem with the original Sapir-Whorf hypothesis stems from the idea that if a persons language has no word for a particular concept, then that person would not be able to understand that concept, which is untrue.  Language doesnt necessarily control humans ability to reason or have an emotional response to something or some idea. For example, take the German word  sturmfrei, which essentially is the feeling when you have the whole house to yourself because your parents or roommates are away. Just because English doesnt have a single word for the idea doesnt mean that Americans cant understand the concept. Theres also the chicken and egg problem with the theory. Languages, of course, are human creations, tools we invent and hone to suit our needs,  Boroditsky continued. Simply showing that speakers of different languages think differently doesnt tell us whether its language that shapes thought or the other way around.

Monday, May 11, 2020

High School Dropouts And Its Effect On Our Country

Being defeated is often an (only lasting for a short time) condition. Giving up is permanent, Marylin vos Smart person. According to Americangraduatedc.org, 1.3 million students each year dropout of high school in the United States alone. Dropouts refers to a student quitting school before he or she graduates or avoiding enrolling in college. Students who drop out are more likely to be unemployed, homeless, or receiving welfare. High School dropouts are very common in the United States today. Only 72% of America s children graduate from high school. Eighteen states allows the students to stop school before the age of eighteen. High school dropouts causes a bad effect on our country. The results of dropping out of high school can have†¦show more content†¦Some small sections/small parts are presented below in tables; however, for a complete discussion,please see the original article: Understanding Why Students Drop Out of High School, According to Their Own Reports Lower education ranking is a huge effect of dropping out of high school. Many people are unable to finish high school due to sickness, such as pregnancy, viruses, etc. The lower someone s education ranking is, the harder it would be for them to survive in the real world. College is the most helpful way that a parent can take care of them and/or their kids. According to nccp.org, over the past twenty years, parents with less education have been losing money-based ground. 25% of student are in poor families with parents that does not have a high school diploma. 57% of students are in poor families with parents that only has high school diploma and did not go ahead/move forward to college. 24% of students are in poor families with parents that only has some college education. These percentages shows that the college level you have, the more likely you are to coming close to succeeding. People with low education level are the people who are in poor families, struggling, or even poor and living on the streets. Those with lower education levels receives the most help from the government. People with poor and education tends

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations Free Essays

Why is a conical flask, rather than a beaker, used in the experiment? – To allow easy mixing of solutions by swirling. 2. Why is the funnel removed from the burette after adding the acid solution? – so that the drops from the funnel will not fall into the burette. We will write a custom essay sample on Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. In using a burette, why is it important to (a) rinse it with a little of the solution it is going to contain? – to remove any residual water and so avoid dilution of the acid solution when it is poured into the burette. (b) to clamp it vertically? – to enable the liquid level to be read correctly. ) to have the part below the tap full? – to ensure that the actual volume of liquid delivered into the flask is read correctly. 4. Give one reason for carrying out the following procedures during the titration. (i) The sides of the conical flask were washed down with deionised water? – To ensure that all of the acid added from the burette can react with the base. (ii) The conical flask was frequently swirled or shaken? – To ensure complete mixing of the reactants. 5. Why is a rough titration carried out? – To find the approximate end point. This nformation enables the subsequent titrations to be carried out more quickly. 6. Why is more than one accurate titration carried out? – To minimise error by getting accurate readings within 0. 1-3 cm of each other. 7. Explain why hydrochloric acid is not used as a primary standard? – The exact concentration of any hydrochloric acid solution is not known, unless it is prepared from standard ampoules. Laboratory grade hydrochloric acid is not sufficiently pure. 8. Can any of the following be used as primary standards: NaOH, H2S04, HN03? Explain your answer. A primary standard should be available in a highly pure state and stable. None of these substances are available pure because: (a) NaOH readily absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air. (b) Concentrated H2S04 readily absorbs water from the air. (c)HN03 breaks down releasing N02 gas. 9. If you used only 10cm3 of sodium carbonate solution in the conical flask, calculate how much acid would be required to neutralise it. x 10-3 moles Na2C03 10cm3 Na 2CO 3 solution used at concentration of 0. 1 M 1 2 x 10-3 moles HCL required Concentration of HCL is 0. M 1000 x 2 x 10-3 / 0. 23crn3 required = 10. 5crn fi13. 10. Describe briefly how a pure dry sample of sodium chloride could be obtained having carried out the titration? – Using the information provided by the titration results, add Just enough hydrochloric acid to exactly neutralise 25cm 3 of sodium carbonate. The indicator should not be added. Gently heat the solution until all the water has evaporated to dryness. A sample of sodium chloride will remain in the beaker. Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations By AbigailHerbert How to cite Solutions, Dilutions and molarity calculations, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Podcast 2 Proposal Essays - World Wide Web, Behavioral Addiction

Podcast 2 Proposal For the podcast assignment, I will be using Source f orge Audacity software. It is an open source project and free to use application. Audacity is multi-track audio editor and recorder for Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux . This is relatively easy to use audio tool. I have some experience using the app, but not for podcasting purposes. I've been listening to a few podcasts, such as Talking Tesla and ESL podcasts. In my second podcast, I woul d like to talk about video game addiction . Most definitions of video game addiction refer to excessive play which results in negative emotional, social, relational, educational, or career consequences. There are several signs of video game addiction: s pending most of one's free time playing video games , f requently playing video games for six to eight hours non-stop , l oss of interest in social activities etc. I will discuss i s v ideo g ame a ddiction a big probl em . I will use the next sources: http://mediasmarts.ca/video-games/concerns-about-video-games http://www.techaddiction.ca/addiction-to-video-games.html http://www.techaddiction.ca/video-game-addiction.html https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2017/08/11/how-big-of-a-problem-is-video-game-addiction/#54472e8c3c4d https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_controversies